Introduction

This file contains some examples of the functions related to the DI and cellHandler routines.

library("cellWise")

Artificial data

In this example we consider an artificial dataset with cellwise outliers. First we construct a correlation matrix and then use it to generate the data.

d     <- 10
mu    <- rep(0, 10)
Sigma <- generateCorMat(d = d, corrType = "A09")

n      <- 100 # number of observations
outlierType   <- "cellwiseStructured" # type of cellwise outliers
perout <- 0.2 # percentage of outliers
gamma  <- 5 # how far the outliers are from the center

data  <- generateData(n, d, mu, Sigma, perout,
                      gamma, outlierType, seed = 1) 
X <- data$X
pairs(X)

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# we clearly see some marginal outliers, but also some more tricky ones.

Now we run the DI algorithm to detect cellwise outliers

tic = Sys.time()
DI.out = DI(X)
##  
##  The input data has 100 rows and 10 columns.
toc = Sys.time(); toc - tic 
## Time difference of 0.1151021 secs
DI.out$nits 
## [1] 4
# the algorithm converges in 4 iterations and takes under 1 second

flaggedCells <- DI.out$indcells # indices of the flagged Cells
length(intersect(data$indcells, flaggedCells))
## [1] 159
# 159 of the 200 cells are flagged

# We can now compare this with the marginal flagging of outliers.
locScale.out <- estLocScale(X) # robust location and scale of X
Z <- scale(X, locScale.out$loc, locScale.out$scale)
flaggedCells_marginal <- which(abs(Z) >  sqrt(qchisq(p = 0.99, df = 1)))
length(intersect(data$indcells, flaggedCells_marginal))
## [1] 61
# only 61 of the 200 cells are flagged


cellMap(X, DI.out$Zres, indcells = flaggedCells, 
                  columnlabels = 1:10,
                  rowlabels = 1:100,
                  mTitle = "cellHandler",
                  rowtitle = "",
                  columntitle = "",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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cellMap(X, Z, indcells = flaggedCells_marginal, 
                  columnlabels = 1:10,
                  rowlabels = 1:100,
                  mTitle = "marginal analysis",
                  rowtitle = "",
                  columntitle = "",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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VOC data

We first load an inspect the data.

data("data_VOC")
# ?VOC

# The first 16 variables are the VOCs, the last 3 are:
# SMD460: How many people who live here smoke tobacco?
# SMD470: How many people smoke inside this home?
# RIDAGEYR: age

colnames(data_VOC)
##  [1] "URX2MH"   "URX34M"   "URXAAM"   "URXAMC"   "URXATC"   "URXBMA"  
##  [7] "URXCEM"   "URXCYM"   "URXDHB"   "URXHP2"   "URXHPM"   "URXIPM3" 
## [13] "URXMAD"   "URXMB3"   "URXPHG"   "URXPMM"   "SMD460"   "SMD470"  
## [19] "RIDAGEYR"
range(data_VOC$RIDAGEYR)
## [1]  3 10
# the subjects in this dataset are children between 3 and 10

Now extract the VOC data and run the DI algorithm to estimate a covariance matrix and flag cellwise outliers.

X <- data_VOC[, -c(17:19)] # extract the VOC data

# Run the Detection Imputation (DI) algorithm:
tic = Sys.time()
DI.out = DI(X)
##  
##  The input data has 512 rows and 16 columns.
toc = Sys.time(); toc - tic 
## Time difference of 1.036113 secs
DI.out$nits 
## [1] 4
# the algorithm converges in 4 iterations and takes roughly 2 seconds

Zres     <- DI.out$Zres
indcells <- DI.out$indcells
# Draw cellmap:
# pdf("VOCs_20_cellmap.pdf", height = 6)
rowsToShow = 1:20
cellMap(X, Zres, 
                  indcells = indcells, 
                  columnlabels = colnames(X),
                  showrows = rowsToShow,
                  rowlabels = 1:512,
                  mTitle = "VOCs in children",
                  rowtitle = "first 20 children",
                  columntitle = "volatile components",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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# dev.off()
rm(rowsToShow)

Now analyze the flagged cells and compare them with the cells found based on marginal outlyingness.

W <- matrix(0, nrow(X), ncol(X))
W[indcells] <- 1
# Variable 8 has a substantial number of red cells.
# Its total number of outlying cells:
sum(W[,8])/nrow(X)
## [1] 0.1171875
# Variable 8 has 12% of outlying cells.

# Since quant = 0.99 these are the cells with absolute
# residual above sqrt(qchisq(p=0.99,df=1)) = 2.575829 .
# Variable 8 is "URXCYM":  
#   N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (ng/mL)
# this is a well-known biomarker for exposure to tobacco 
# smoke. see e.g.
# https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210104
# Adults who smoke usually have high values.

# How many URXCYM values in this set are marginally outlying?
# If we would use univariate outlier detection, few of 
# the URXCYM values in this set would be considered suspicious:
meds = apply(X,2,FUN="median")
mads = apply(X,2,FUN="mad")
Z = scale(X,center=meds,scale=mads)
cutoff = sqrt(qchisq(p=0.99,df=1)); cutoff 
## [1] 2.575829
cellInd = which(abs(Zres[,8]) > cutoff)
length(cellInd)/nrow(X) # almost 12%
## [1] 0.1171875
marginalInd = which(abs(Z[,8]) > cutoff)
length(marginalInd)/nrow(X) # under 2%
## [1] 0.01953125
# Even for perfectly gaussian data this would already be 1%.

# pdf("ZresVersusZ.pdf",width=5.4,height=5.4) # sizes in inches
plot(Z[,8], Zres[,8], xlab = "",ylab = "",main = "",pch = 16, 
     col = "black", xlim=c(-3,5))
title(main="log(URXCYM) in children aged 10 or younger",
      line=1) # , cex.lab=1.2, family="Calibri Light")
title(ylab="standardized cellwise residuals", line=2.3)
title(xlab="robustly standardized marginal values", line=2.3)
abline(h=cutoff, col="red")
abline(h=-cutoff, col="red")
abline(v=cutoff, col="red")
abline(v=-cutoff, col="red")

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# dev.off()
# Many outlying residuals occur at inlying marginal values.
# These persons' URXCYM is high relative to the other 
# compounds (variables) in the same person.

We now link the findings with the data on household smoking.

# Look at the residuals for the children who 
# live together with people who smoke.
# We consider 4 categories:

# children without smokers in their family:
nonsmokers = which(data_VOC$SMD460 == 0) 
length(nonsmokers) 
## [1] 340
# at least one adult smokes, but not in the home:
noneInHome = which((data_VOC$SMD460 > 0) &
                      (data_VOC$SMD470 == 0))
length(noneInHome)
## [1] 109
# children with 1 person smoking in their home:
oneInHome = which(data_VOC$SMD470 == 1)
length(oneInHome) 
## [1] 33
# children with 2 people smoking in their home:
twoInHome = which(data_VOC$SMD470 == 2) 
length(twoInHome) 
## [1] 11
length(which(Zres[nonsmokers,8] > 0))/length(nonsmokers) 
## [1] 0.05294118
length(which(Zres[noneInHome,8] > 0))/length(noneInHome) 
## [1] 0.1192661
length(which(Zres[oneInHome,8] > 0))/length(oneInHome) 
## [1] 0.3636364
length(which(Zres[twoInHome,8] > 0))/length(twoInHome)
## [1] 0.7272727
# So 36% of the children living in a house with one smoker 
# have suspiciously high levels for this biomarker.
# 73% of the children living in a house with two smokers
# have suspiciously high levels for this biomarker.

cellMap(X, Zres, 
                  indcells = which(W == 1), 
                  columnlabels = colnames(X),
                  showrows = oneInHome,
                  rowlabels = 1:512,
                  mTitle = "VOCs in children",
                  rowtitle = "",
                  columntitle = "volatile components",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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cellMap(X, Zres, 
                  indcells = which(W == 1), 
                  columnlabels = colnames(X),
                  showrows = twoInHome,
                  rowlabels = 1:512,
                  mTitle = "VOCs in children",
                  rowtitle = "",
                  columntitle = "volatile components",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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# For one or more smokers in the house:
smokeInHome = c(oneInHome,twoInHome)
length(smokeInHome) 
## [1] 44
cellMap(X, Zres, 
                  indcells = which(W == 1), 
                  columnlabels = colnames(X),
                  showrows = smokeInHome,
                  rowlabels = 1:512,
                  mTitle = "VOCs in children",
                  rowtitle = "",
                  columntitle = "volatile components",
                  sizetitles = 2,
                  drawCircles = F)

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# In all of these cellmaps the variable URXCYM stands out!

# If we would use a univariate detection bound, many of these values
# wouldn't be considered suspicious:

length(which(Z[nonsmokers] > cutoff))/length(nonsmokers) 
## [1] 0.02058824
length(which(Z[noneInHome] > cutoff))/length(noneInHome)
## [1] 0.02752294
length(which(Z[oneInHome] > cutoff))/length(oneInHome) 
## [1] 0
length(which(Z[twoInHome] > cutoff))/length(twoInHome) 
## [1] 0
# Here the fractions are not even increasing with the number of smokers.

plotdata = matrix(c(length(which(Zres[nonsmokers,8] > 0))/length(nonsmokers),
                    length(which(Zres[noneInHome,8] > 0))/length(noneInHome), 
                    length(which(Zres[oneInHome,8] > 0))/length(oneInHome), 
                    length(which(Zres[twoInHome,8] > 0))/length(twoInHome),
                    length(which(Z[nonsmokers] > cutoff))/length(nonsmokers),
                    length(which(Z[noneInHome] > cutoff))/length(noneInHome),
                    length(which(Z[oneInHome] > cutoff))/length(oneInHome),
                    length(which(Z[twoInHome] > cutoff))/length(twoInHome)),
                  nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE)

# pdf("cellwise_marginal.pdf",width=5.4,height=5.4)
matplot(1:4, t(plotdata), type = "b", pch = 16, lwd = 3,
        cex = 2, xlab = "", xaxt = "n", ylab = "", yaxt = "n", 
        ylim = c(0, 0.8), col = c("blue", "red"), lty = 1)
axis(side = 1, labels = c("none", "0 in home", "1 in home", "2 in home"),
     at = 1:4, cex.axis = 1.3)
axis(side = 2, labels = seq(0, 100, by = 20),
     at = seq(0, 1, by = 0.2), cex.axis = 1.3)
legend("topleft", fill = c("blue", "red"),
       legend = c("cell residuals","marginal values"), cex = 1.3)
title(main="Effect of smokers on elevated URXCYM in children",
      line=1.2) 
title(ylab="% of children with elevated URXCYM",cex.lab=1.3, line=2.3)
title(xlab="smoking adults in household",cex.lab=1.3, line=2.3)

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# dev.off()